A01 New Frontiers in Rock and Environmental Magnetism

Convener(s): Aldo Winkler (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): Andrea Biedermann (Switzerland) Juan Cruz Larrasoaña Gorosquieta (Spain)

Description
Rock and environmental magnetism have developed considerably over the last years, both from a theoretical, experimental and methodological point of view and for their wide range of multidisciplinary applications, connecting the geosciences to physics, chemistry, biology and environmental science, and even cultural heritage and archeological investigations. This session welcomes contributions on the numerous applications of rock and environmental magnetism, including but not limited to, climate change, anthropogenic pollution, iron biomineralization, and depositional and diagenetic processes in sediments. In particular, we encourage studies that focus on the multidisciplinary advancement of measurement and interpretation techniques. This session provides a platform to foster and deepen collaboration between rock and environmental magnetism and any researcher involved in the study of the sources and the impact of multi-scale natural and anthropogenic environmental processes.

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A02 Electrodynamics and Energetics of the Middle Atmosphere

Convener(s): Martin Füllekrug (UK)

Co-Convener(s): Earle Williams (USA) Colin Price (Israel) Gaopeng Lu (China) Mitsuteru Sato (Japan)

Description
This symposium explores ground and space-based measurements and the corresponding theory and simulations which enable studies of the impact of thunderstorms and lightning on the Earth’s middle atmosphere and their relation to global climate change. The session solicits contributions which advance knowledge in all of the above areas as part of the global atmospheric electric circuit, including thunderstorm quasi-static electric fields, lightning discharges and their electromagnetic radiation in all frequency ranges, transient luminous events, energetic charged particles, and their impact on the Earth's middle atmosphere and near-Earth space. Interdisciplinary studies which emphasize the connection between atmospheric layers, their electrodynamics and climate change are particularly welcome.

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A03 Coupling Processes in the Atmosphere-Ionosphere System

Convener(s): Christina Arras (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Petra Koucká Knížová (Czech Republic) Subramanian Gurubaran (India) Loren Chang (Taiwan, Province of China) Igo Paulino (Brazil) Erdal Yigit (USA)

Description
The objective of this symposium is to bring new insights into the understanding of the coupling processes in the atmosphere-ionosphere system. The symposium will address fundamental physical, chemical, and electrodynamical processes covering whole atmosphere system. The coupled effects can be expressed in terms of the modulation of waves from the lower to the upper atmosphere as well as from low- to high latitudes, electrodynamic and compositional changes, plasma drifts, electric fields and plasma irregularities at different latitudinal regions of the globe due to the varying energy inputs. The manner in which the couplings take place due to varying energy inputs from the Sun and from the lower atmosphere is a question that is not completely understood. This symposium solicits papers dealing with experiments, observations, modelling and data analyses that describe the effects of atmospheric coupling processes within the whole atmosphere-ionosphere system. The symposium is proposed by IAGA WG II-C Meteorological effects on the ionosphere in cooperation with the Scientific Committee on Solar Terrestrial Physics (SCOSTEP) along with its PRESTO science program and the Interdivisional Commission on Developing Countries (ICDC).

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A04 Advances in Mid-Latitude, Low-Latitude and Equatorial Aeronomy

Convener(s): Michael Pezzopane (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): Venkatesh Kavutarapu (India) Paulo Roberto Fagundes (Brazil) Alessio Pignalberi (Italy)

Description
Papers are invited for a symposium on the recent advances in the field of mid-latitude, low-latitude and equatorial aeronomy from observational (ground-based and space-borne), theoretical and simulation studies. The occurrence of equatorial Spread-F, plasma bubbles, equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), equatorial electrojet (EEJ), ionospheric disturbances induced by SSWs, and multiple F-layer stratifications present a strong daily, day-to-day, and seasonal variability, mainly caused by the ionospheric electrodynamics, thermospheric winds and wave actions (gravity waves, tides, planetary waves, TIDs and MSTIDs). Recent multi-instrument and multi-site observations, various satellite borne experiments, as well as, theoretical and simulation investigations have advanced our understanding of these phenomena, during both quiet and disturbed periods including geomagnetic storms, sub-storms, solar flares, solar eclipses, sudden stratospheric warmings and different meteorological events. The objective of this symposium is to bring together the experimentalists and theoreticians to survey the latest results, examine new ideas and concepts, and to pave the way for future directions in equatorial and low-latitude research. The session will include both solicited and contributed (oral and poster) papers.

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A05 Space Weather and Electrodynamics of the Ionosphere and Atmosphere into the Polar Regions

Convener(s): Eugene Rozanov (Switzerland)

Co-Convener(s): Tamas Bozoki (Hungary) Irina Mironova (Russia) Earle Williams (USA)

Description
The Polar ionosphere-atmosphere system as well as the electrodynamics of the global electrical circuit depends on solar wind magnetosphere interactions. The symposium solicits contributions to interdisciplinary studies that emphasize the connection between the ionosphere-atmosphere system and the magnetosphere, as well as the coupling between atmospheric layers, ionospheric potential, electrical currents, lightning physics, energetic radiation, energetic particles, and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere, ionosphere and the magnetosphere. In particular, we welcome reports on the impact of energetic particle precipitation on the Earth's ionosphere and atmosphere, their atmospheric and climate effects, the formation of electrical currents and changes in conductivity. This symposium is focused on both satellite and ground-based observations, as well as modelling studies of electrodynamics of the ionosphere-atmosphere system and its coupling to the space environment. The symposium also invites contributions from the SCOSTEP/PRESTO program (Pillar 2: Space Weather and Earth’s Atmosphere and Pillar 3: Solar Activity and its Influence On Climate).

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A06 Energetic Particle Precipitation Impacts on the Ionosphere, Upper Atmosphere, and Climate System

Convener(s): Mark Clilverd (UK)

Co-Convener(s): Craig Rodger (New Zealand) Pekka Verronen (Finland)

Description
This symposium is targeted at both satellite and ground-based and experimental observations, as well as theoretical investigations, into the precipitation of energetic particles into the D-region ionosphere and below - along with the impact of the energetic precipitation on the upper atmosphere and the coupling of these impacts on the climate system. Particle precipitation into the atmosphere is one of the mechanisms for energetic electron loss from the Van Allen radiation belts. This is particularly significant during and after geomagnetic storms, when the loss rate, and the source population, can both increase. Submissions describing other examples of energetic particle precipitation affecting the mesosphere and stratosphere, for example solar proton events or hard-spectrum substorm precipitation, are also relevant for this symposium. Papers considering the precipitation drivers, the nature of the particle fluxes, the impact of the precipitation on the ionosphere or atmosphere, and the climate system response are welcome. Results from the SPARC’s SOLARIS-HEPPA community, as well SCOSTEP's PRESTO programme are solicited.

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A07 Radiation Belt and Ring Current: Emergence and Loss in Geospace, and the Role of the Cold Plasma Background

Convener(s): Drew Turner (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Ioannis Daglis (Greece) Jacob Bortnik (USA) Yoshizumi Miyoshi (Japan) Balazs Heilig (Hungary)

Description
Relativistic electrons in geospace form the Van Allen radiation belts and are a major space weather agent, as they pose a significant threat to space assets. Their emergence and loss are driven, to a large extent, by magnetospheric plasma waves of various frequencies. These processes are mediated by the cold plasma density through wave-particle interactions over a large scale of spatial extent. Loss of relativistic electrons occurs through the magnetopause to interplanetary space and through precipitation to the Earth’s atmosphere. Precipitating relativistic electrons have a significant impact on the dynamics of the upper atmosphere which can cause catalytic destruction of mesospheric ozone and feed back into space affecting the convection electric field. This session invites studies of the emergence, loss, precipitation and atmospheric impacts of relativistic electrons in geospace, as well as  the dynamic behaviour of the plasmasphere and the radiation belt using in-situ and ground based observations, physics-based models, machine learning and/or numerical simulations.

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A08 DIV III Reporter Review

Convener(s): Simon Wing (USA)

Co-Convener(s): George Balasis (Greece)

Description
Contributions to this session are by invitation only. This session presents reviews of the scientific progress in the Div III in the last few years.

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A09 Magnetosphere-Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling during Enhanced Geomagnetic Activity

Convener(s): Toshi Nishimura (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Yaqi Jin (Norway) Simon Wing (USA)

Description
Determining the effects of energy deposition and transport, and momentum exchange across regions and different spatial and temporal scales during disturbed times such as storms and substorms is an important objective in the M-I-T system. Coupling across multiple scales is also a critical challenge since observational and modeling methodologies for bridging different scales do not presently exist. This session solicits presentations on a wide range of coupling processes in the M-I-T system from global to local processes. Relevant topics include (but are not limited to) (1) density structures and temperature gradients (polar cap patch, cusp, plume, trough, irregularities); (2) convection (fast flows, SAPS, penetration electric field) and currents; (3) energy transfer and deposition by precipitation, conductivity, aurora, and heating; (4) ion-neutral interaction (thermospheric density and wind) and (5) coupling and feedback into the magnetosphere (including waves and instabilities). Discussions by all means of observations, modeling and data science are encouraged.

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A10 The Expanding Regimes of ULF Wave Research

Convener(s): Jayashree Bulusu (India)

Co-Convener(s): Kazue Takahashi (USA) Masahito Nosé (Japan)

Description
ULF wave research has a long-standing history and equally significant on-going efforts in explaining some of the fundamental problems of magnetospheric research viz: energy transport during dynamic coupling of solar wind-magnetosphere, wave particle interaction, flux rope disruptions during active geomagnetic conditions. The research has a far-reaching implication in magnetoseismology using field line resonances and extends to higher frequencies covering the IAR (Ionospheric Alfven resonator) and ELF bands in probing the lowest ionospheric layers. This ULF session focuses on the advancement in the understanding of ULF wave propagation and transport of energy in the geospace and other planetary environments, as well as in the use of ULF waves to probe the magnetosphere, such as in magnetoseismology. Papers are invited from observations of ULF waves with satellites and ground-based experiments depicting transmission of energy from the solar wind, internal ULF instabilities, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, field line resonances, investigations of IAR and SR (Schumann Resonances) and their relation to ULF waves. Papers depicting the developments in analytic, numerical, and machine learning techniques are also encouraged.

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A11 Magnetotail Dynamic Processes

Convener(s): Jay Johnson (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Chih-Ping Wang (USA)

Description
Decades of space explorations have shown that plasma and energy transport processes in the magnetotails of Earth and other planets play a critical role in the dynamics of their magnetospheres. These processes occur over a diverse range of spatial and temporal scales, involving steady and/or intermittent mass loading, momentum, and energy transport often culminating in explosive events that completely reorganize the plasma sheet and drive processes in the inner magnetosphere, ionosphere, and boundary layer. Multipoint observations within the boundary layers, the plasma sheet and the ionosphere have been key to developing a more comprehensive view of the role of various transport processes. However, many unsolved questions remain about the underlying transport mechanisms and their coupling to the inner magnetosphere and ionosphere, which can only be resolved using multiple approaches that include theory, simulation, and observation. This session provides a forum to present the latest results on magnetotail processes at Earth and other planets.

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A12 Magnetospheric Processes

Convener(s): Simon Wing (USA)

Co-Convener(s): George Balasis (Greece)

Description
The magnetosphere is the outermost layer of the atmosphere where the primary physical processes involve plasma, waves, electric currents, electric and magnetic fields. At its outer boundary, the magnetosphere interacts with the solar wind, forming a bow shock and magnetopause boundary. Electric currents flow within the magnetosphere and between magnetosphere and ionosphere, providing a fundamental link for the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. Mass and energy are transported between the solar wind and magnetosphere and between magnetosphere and ionosphere. This session welcomes contributions that highlight processes within the magnetosphere, solar wind-magnetosphere interactions, and magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions. Studies that involve satellite and ground observations, modeling and simulations, theory, and laboratory experiments are welcomed.

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A13 Magnetospheric Boundary Layers

Convener(s): Xuanye Ma (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Andrew Dimmock (Sweden) Kareem Sorathia (USA) Ya-Hui Yang (Taiwan, Province of China)

Description
Planetary magnetospheres have long been known to be spatially bounded by the fast solar wind, such that plasmas and fields observed inward of the boundary (magnetopause) are distinct from plasmas and fields outside the boundary.  Additional examples of boundaries in typical magnetospheres include but are not limited to the outer edge of the magnetotail plasma sheet, the upstream bow shock, and the plasmapause. These boundaries of finite thickness not only spatially separate different regions but also have a profound impact on their neighboring regions, which are rich environments for study since they contain an array of multi-scale processes. Examples include magnetic reconnection, waves, instabilities, and non-linear structures, which can be coupled across electron-ion-fluid scales.  Recent spacecraft missions and ground-based observatories have made it possible to make observations from multiple vantage points, at varying spatial scales, and at high temporal resolution. This has enabled important new insights into the fundamental physical processes associated with boundary layers under different solar wind conditions and different types of magnetospheres. In this session we focus on recent advances in the understanding of magnetospheric boundary layers. We encourage contributions from data analysis studies, first-principles and empirical modeling, machine learning, and theory that address the physics of magnetospheric boundary layers and their influence on magnetospheric dynamics.

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A14 Dayside Magnetosphere Interactions

Convener(s): Hui Zhang (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Bertrand Lembege (France) Qiugang Zong (China)

Description
The Earth’s magnetosphere is significantly affected by transient solar wind features. During the interaction between the solar wind transients and the Geospace system, important energy transfer and transport occur. Solar energy in various forms can propagate into the magnetosphere and ionosphere. In the meanwhile, charged particle energy can be transformed to electromagnetic energy, and vice versa. In-depth understanding of how the magnetosphere responds to transient solar wind features will enhance our knowledge on the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. This special session will address the processes by which solar wind mass, momentum, and energy enter the magnetosphere. Regions of interest include the foreshock, bow shock, magnetosheath, magnetopause, cusps, the dayside magnetosphere, and the dayside ionosphere. This special session will provide a forum for the latest results from in-situ spacecraft observations, ground-based observations, and simulations. Coordinated multi-point observations are especially encouraged. Planetary dayside magnetospheric interaction studies are also welcome.

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A15 Advances and Upcoming Developments in Solar and Heliospheric Physics

Convener(s): Mari Paz Miralles (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Noé Lugaz (USA) Spiros Patsourakos (Greece) Jin-Yi Lee (Republic of Korea) Xochitl Blanco-Cano (Mexico) John Richardson (USA) Cnythia Lopez Portela (Mexico)

Description
Continuous observations have advanced our knowledge of the physical and dynamical properties of the Sun, the heliosphere, and the interstellar medium. These observations, along with theory and models, continue to pose challenges to our understanding of the relevant physical processes. This session invites contributions covering new results from space- and ground-based observations, theory, and modeling of different aspects of the Sun and the heliosphere, including the solar interior, magnetic field, atmosphere, solar wind, and interstellar medium. This session will stimulate exchange and promote discussion of upcoming developments from the latest research and instrumentation in the field. In addition, we also invite contributions from the SCOSTEP/PRESTO program (Pillar 1: Sun, interplanetary space, and geospace).

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A16 Waves and Turbulence in the Solar Corona and Wind

Convener(s): Luca Franci (UK)

Co-Convener(s): Emauele Papini (Italy) Francesco Valentini (Italy) Sergio Servidio (Italy) William Matthaeus (USA)

Description
Turbulence is ubiquitous in space and astrophysical plasmas and it is a fundamental ingredient in their dynamics. It is directly responsible for transferring energy from macroscopic fluid scales down to sub-electron scales and it also plays a role in particle heating and acceleration and in energy dissipation, all processes of great interest for the astrophysical community. Plasma environments that are directly accessible to spacecraft such as the solar wind, and more recently the solar corona, represent unique natural laboratories to probe the plasma dynamics. In situ spacecraft observations, combined with theoretical models and numerical simulations, are key to advancing our understanding of the different phenomena at play. This session will focus on current research on plasma turbulence in the solar corona and the solar wind. It will address its properties and evolution, its interaction with magnetic reconnection, instabilities, wave-particle interactions, and the solar wind expansion, and its role in the particle dynamics and in energy dissipation. We welcome diverse and complementary contributions from theory, simulations, and observations which focus on different aspects (e.g., spectral properties, cross-scale energy transfer, intermittency, and all related mechanisms).

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A17 Interplanetary Shocks, Particle Acceleration, and Transport in Solar and Heliospheric Physics

Convener(s): Manolis Georgoulis (Greece)

Co-Convener(s): Alexis Roulliard (France) Camilla Scolini (USA ) Robert Wimmer-Schweingruber (Germany) Alessandro Bemporad (Italy)

Description
Collisionless shock waves produced by coronal mass ejections and corotating interaction regions are known to accelerate solar energetic particles (SEPs). The enhancements in energetic particle fluxes at Earth can pose a hazard to humans and technology in space and at high altitudes. The mechanisms that accelerate particles in shock waves are still debated and include, for instance, shock-drift, diffusive shock, and betatron acceleration. The shock geometry and strength and the presence of pre-energized seed particle populations are also thought to significantly affect the capacity of shock waves to accelerate particles. The advent of Solar Orbiter and Parker Solar Probe has opened a new era in this branch of high-energy solar physics by allowing detailed measurements of SEPs closer to the Sun, thereby alleviating some challenges by allowing more in-depth studies of the relative effects of acceleration and transport processes on SEP events. This session addresses the acceleration and transport of energetic particles at shock waves by inviting research contributions focused on the analysis of particles measurements in the inner heliosphere by the current fleet of operating spacecraft as well as through theoretical studies including numerical simulations.

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A18 Space Weather and Space Climate: Data and Models 

Convener(s): Laure Lefevre (Belgium)

Co-Convener(s): Suiyan Fu (China) Ian Mann (Canada)

Description
With the growing human technology and space exploration, understanding and modeling of space weather and climate driven by solar activity is becoming exceedingly important. Accordingly, the amount of scientific data from numerous missions in the heliosphere is growing rapidly, as is the number and variety of models. This large amount of data evokes novel, data-driven models. In order to use these novel methods, a rigorous examination of the available data, applied techniques, and statistical properties of the system is necessary. We solicit contributions related to recent progress in handling data sources, data quality issues, forecasting techniques and modeling of space weather and space climate. Especially, but not exclusively, we encourage contributions describing novel approaches based on data assimilation techniques and machine learning. Contributions regarding data collection, data formats, metadata standards, distribution interfaces, and any issues associated with these are also encouraged. 

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A19 Solar Eruptions (CMEs, Flares, Filaments), Their Source Region Evolution, and Forecast

Convener(s): Bernhard Kliem (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Lucie M. Green (UK) Jie Zhang (USA) Manolis Georgoulis (Greece)

Description
The physical processes in solar eruptions -- filament/prominence eruptions, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and flares -- continue to be debated, despite expanding observational capabilities from space (SDO, SolO) and the ground (e.g., NVST, DKIST), ever increasing complexity and realism of their numerical modeling, and progress in analytical treatments. Magnetohydrodynamic instabilities and magnetic reconnection are at work, but their interplay and relative importance remain elusive. The topology of the source-region field, which rules these processes, is difficult to infer. Opposing processes in active-region evolution at the photospheric level, like flux emergence and cancellation, are both capable of driving the coronal field up to the onset of eruption, and it remains unclear which of them is most relevant for the strongest eruptions. Of particular relevance for forecasts is the question at which evolutionary stage of emerging regions major eruptions begin to occur. Shear and rotational motions increase the complexity. Understanding these relationships and the onset conditions will help advancing phenomenological eruption forecasts to so-called physics-based ones. The session invites contributions on these and related aspects of solar eruptions, including observations and modeling.

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A20 The Rising Phase of Solar Cycle 25 and Comparisons to Previous Cycles

Convener(s): Nishu Karna (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Lisa Upton (USA) Frederic Clette (Belgium) Duncan Mackay (UK)

Description
The eleven-year solar cycle is driven by the periodic evolution of the solar magnetic field, a dynamo process involving the transformation of the Sun’s poloidal magnetic field into a toroidal active region belt and back again from the toroidal bands to a new poloidal field of the opposite polarity. This cyclic variation has been observed for centuries by changes of activity markers at the solar surface, but this variability is also present in the Sun’s interior, throughout the interplanetary medium, and in the response of the Earth’s magnetosphere and atmosphere. In this session, we solicit contributions on aspects of solar, heliospheric, and geospace phenomena that are modulated by the solar cycle. This includes, but is not limited to solar flows; sunspots and active regions; filaments and prominences; coronal cavities, streamers, and holes; the solar wind; solar irradiance; and the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere. We look forward to getting a comprehensive overview of the ongoing rise to the solar cycle 25 maximum, and investigating the similarities and differences with previous solar cycles, in order to improve our predictions of the rest of the current cycle, and possibly, of the cycles that will follow.

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A21 Satellite-Based Geomagnetic Field Measurements and Modeling

Convener(s): Gauthier Hulot (France)

Co-Convener(s): Patrick Alken (USA)

Description
Geomagnetic field measurements from space have played a crucial role in enhancing our understanding of our planet's magnetic field and its interaction with the solar wind for the past two decades. Space-based measurements provide global coverage at all longitudes and local times, allowing the separation of magnetic signals originating in the core, lithosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere. This session invites presentations on upcoming satellite missions designed for geomagnetic observations, as well as the use of existing and future satellite datasets to advance our capabilities for modeling all sources of the geomagnetic field.

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A22 Planetary Magnetic Fields and Secular Variation at All Temporal Scales

Convener(s): William Brown (UK)

Co-Convener(s): Hannah Rogers (UK) Courtney Sprain (USA)

Description
Magnetic fields are a key characteristic of Earth and many other planetary bodies. Their study can provide insight into a planetary body’s workings, from core to space. Magnetic fields vary across a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, and the secular variations generated by dynamo processes are windows to the past, present, and future state of these bodies. This session covers observations, simulations, and theory of planetary magnetic fields, with particular focus on all timescales of paleo-, archeo-, and geo-magnetic secular variations.

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A23 Current Developments of Ground Geomagnetic Observations and Integration With Space Based Data

Convener(s): Katia Pinheiro (Brazil)

Co-Convener(s): Seiki Asari (Japan) Vincent Lesur (France)

Description
Ground geomagnetic observations play a crucial role in generating high quality and consistent long term data sets. On the other hand, satellites produce high quality data with global coverage. The combination of ground and satellite data open new possibilities for studying space weather, space physics, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling, secular variation, and for geomagnetic field modelling. This session aims to bring together the most recent results from experimental and theoretical improvements in data acquisition and their application. We invite contributions on all aspects of advances in developing new techniques for operating ground observatory, magnetometer station and satellites, as well as application of their data. These include the techniques for measurement, instrumentation, data processing, modelling, and any other applications in a global or regional context.

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A24 Geomagnetic Observations, Indices and Products for Space Science, Space Weather and Space Climate Applications

Convener(s): Anna Willer (Denmark)

Co-Convener(s): Jürgen Matzka (Germany) Tanja Petersen (New Zealand) Phani Chandrasekhar (India)

Description
Space weather describes the changing conditions in the near-Earth space environment. The increasing awareness of how space weather events can affect our technological systems, environment, human life and health, has increased the need for scientific investigations and space weather product developments. Magnetic field measurements obtained on Earth, in Low Earth Orbit and further out in space, provide us with crucial data for post priory analysis, and enable us to develop predictions and to monitor the geomagnetic condition in near real time. This session presents geomagnetic observations, indices and products specific to space science, space weather and space climate applications.

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A25 Geoelectric Field Measurements and Modeling for Space Weather Applications

Convener(s): Juliane Huebert (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Ciaran Beggan (UK) Ikuko Fujii (Japan) Joana Ribeiro (Portugal)

Description
Understanding the spatial and temporal variation of geoelectric fields on a regional level is vital, for example, in computing and forecasting geomagnetically induced current effects from space weather activity. Long term measurements have been ongoing for decades to over a century in some countries while more recently many short term magnetotelluric campaigns have produced information on the local response to magnetic field change. In this session, we seek contributions from historic records of the geoelectric field and modern measurements, as well as their use in 1D and 3D modelling of the geoelectric field during magnetically active periods. We seek to bring together data and models to achieve a better understanding of how the geoelectric field varies spatially and temporally in all space weather conditions.

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