S01 Observational Seismology - Open Session

Convener(s): Torsten Dahm (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Domenico Di Giacomo (UK) Johannes Schweitzer (Norway)

Description
The Commission on Seismological Observation and Interpretation (CoSOI) covers a broad spectrum of observational and theoretical seismology, and organises and coordinates several topic-oriented symposia to focus discussions and presentations. The open session in CoSOI provides space for any topics not already covered in the focused symposia. We invite presentations from all areas of CoSOI, including new developments for integrating non-seismological data into seismic observations. This year, it is also a forum for the presentation and discussion of methods for standardisation and automation of (near real-time) seismic data processing and interpretation including all CTBT related topics.

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S02 International, National, Regional and Local Networks and Earthquake Data Centers: Highlights and Challenges

Convener(s): Dmitry Storchak (UK)

Co-Convener(s): Kristin Pankow (USA)

Description
National and regional seismic operation centers play an important role in monitoring for natural earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and other phenomena, such as induced seismicity. The products generated by these centers, from raw waveforms to earthquake catalogs are used by a wide variety of stakeholders, including researchers, emergency management agencies, policy makers, educators, regulators, and the general public. This session focuses on the important role that earthquake centers play in advancing scientific study, especially as it relates to local and regional hazard; integrating new technological advances in data acquisition and processing; and communicating earthquake hazard and risk. We welcome contributions describing new and evolving networks, data policies and data sharing, new processing algorithms, hazard assessments, and novel education and outreach initiatives. Other topics that highlight current advances and challenges for earthquake operation centers are also of interest. Potential outcomes of the session may include summary publications, organized advocacy, and frameworks for closer collaboration.

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S03 Seismic Scattering and Absorption, Ambient Noise, and Monitoring Earth's Structure

Convener(s): Hisashi Nakahara (Japan)

Co-Convener(s): Ulrich Wegler (Germany) Ludovic Margerin (France)

Description
Seismic scattered waves or coda waves carry rich information on heterogeneities within the Earth. Amplitude information from coda waves has been used to estimate the spatial distribution and the frequency dependence of the strength of scattering attenuation and intrinsic absorption in the Earth. Recently, ambient noise cross-correlation has also been used to study seismic structure in the Earth thanks to the development of seismic interferometry. Time-lapse imaging or monitoring of the Earth has been conducted using tiny changes in phase information of cross-correlation functions of ambient noise and coda waves. Increasing the spatial and temporal resolutions of the imaging will help to understand the Earth's heterogeneities and dynamics. In this session, we would like to widely invite presentations related to theoretical and observational studies of attenuation, coda waves, ambient noise, and their applications to the imaging and monitoring Earth’s heterogeneous structure.

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S04 Advancements in Acquisition, Processing and Interpretation of Seismological Data

Convener(s): Francesco Grigoli (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): Mostafa Mousavi (USA) Aitaro Kato (Japan)

Description
Observational seismology is currently undergoing a revolution both concerning new types of instruments and processing paradigms. Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and Large-N nodal arrays, in combination with classical seismological instruments, led to a dramatic increase in the volume of available seismic data. On one hand, this data explosion gives us the possibility to further advance our understanding of tectonic and earthquake processes but, on the other hand, it highlights the limits of the current standard routine seismic analysis, often performed manually by seismologists. The combination of big datasets, new monitoring instrumentations, and novel processing methods, including improvements in rapid communication of scientific results, are leading to breakthroughs in many fields of seismology. For instance, machine-learning-based methods for seismic data analysis are now able to detect at least 10x the number of earthquakes as current operational best practice and reduce the magnitude of completeness by a full magnitude unit, revealing hidden patterns associated with the earthquake generation processes. Waveform-based methods have also grown in popularity and their extensive application is dramatically improving our capability to characterize seismicity in near real-time. Such techniques are particularly useful when working with data sets characterized by large numbers of weak events, with low signal-to-noise ratios, such as those collected in induced seismicity, seismic swarms, and volcanic monitoring operations. However, the results of these automatized processing approaches may have errors when their uncertainties are not carefully evaluated, suggesting future research focus directions. This session aims to bring to light new methods that can be applied to large data sets, either retroactively or in (near) real-time, to characterize seismicity (i.e., perform detection, location, magnitude, and source mechanisms estimation) at different scales and in different environments. We thus encourage contributions that demonstrate how the proposed methods help improve our understanding of the earthquake processes or seismic monitoring operations.

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S05 Advances in Earthquake and Explosion Monitoring Using Distributed Acoustic Sensing

Convener(s): Ben Dando (Norway)

Co-Convener(s): Charlotte Krawczyk (Germany) Meghan Miller (Australia) Herb Wang (USA)

Description
Distributed acoustic sensing has grown into an exciting topic within observational seismology over the last decade. The flexibility of how and where a fibre optic cable can be deployed provides significant opportunities for both novel network designs and a large range of monitoring and sensing applications. Despite this growth in interest, we are still, as a community, trying to understand both what the current limitations are and how far we can push these limits. Fundamental differences exist between DAS measurements and traditional seismometers. DAS measures strain or strain rate whereas seismometers measure particle velocity. Furthermore, DAS measures deformation at metre-scale and only in the direction of the cable whereas seismometers provide single-point measurements but in three orthogonal directions. While the differences in physical measurements require adaptation to extract meaningful signal characteristics, the continuous spatial measurements provide new opportunities for novel signal processing techniques that can take advantage of the vast quantities of data that are recorded. Existing DAS networks include fibre-optic cable buried in shallow trenches or vertical boreholes, cable deployed to emulate traditional seismic arrays, and the repurposing of telecommunication fibre and underwater cables for seismological applications. These networks have been used to demonstrate the potential for earthquake early warning, studies of Earth structure, seismic source analysis, global earthquake monitoring and explosion monitoring. Differences in cable construction and cable deployment can produce differences in the recorded signal. In this symposium we wish to encourage contributions that showcase how DAS can be best used and developed for enhancing seismological analyses relevant to earthquake and explosion monitoring. We are interested in novel methods, applications, networks, and case studies that can enrich our understanding of the topic.

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S06 Pre-Instrumental Earthquake Data

Convener(s): Paola Albini (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): Kenji Satake (Japan)

Description
Evidence of global seismic activity from instrumental records covers about one century, too short a period to catch the recurrence interval of large earthquakes. Historical seismological studies and macroseismic intensity data have significantly expanded backwards in time our knowledge of the seismic behaviour of many areas in the world. Paleoseismological studies of inland active faults, as well as coastal geological studies on tsunami deposits or marine terraces, and marine geological studies on deep-ocean turbidites, have provided important information for the past occurrence of pre-instrumental earthquakes, too. The combination of data deriving from these three domains would result in a better vision of the long-term seismicity, which may be utilized for long-term forecast. However, challenges are still posed to researchers on how to best derive earthquake parameters from originally non-seismological observations of earthquake effects, as it is the case of both macroseismic and geological data. This session welcomes contributions suggesting new prospects related to these topics, such as case studies of historical and paleoseismological records, their unfiltered association to specific events as well as their usual parameterization in seismological terms, or their combination with modern instrumental data, or any further issue on long-term seismicity analysis and forecast of moderate and especially of large earthquakes.

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S07 Scientific Drilling and Downhole Monitoring – A Key to Understand Geohazards

Convener(s): Harold Tobin (USA)

Co-Convener(s): Sukanta Roy (India) Kuo-Fong Ma (Taiwan) Patricia Martínez-Garzón (Germany) Thomas Wiersberg (Germany)

Description
Solid-earth geohazards such as earthquakes, volcanoes, and mass movements pose an ever-increasing threat to humankind. They occur on very different time and space scales, strongly depend on local geological conditions, and often involve only little signals, making each one of them challenging to assess, study, and forecast. It is of utmost relevance to decipher their underlying causes and the physical processes that drive them, to understand the full chain from hazard to risk. Shallow and deep scientific drilling is the ultimate method to gain in-situ data and retrieve uncompromised samples from the underground to calibrate models derived from surface studies or modeling. Boreholes provide unique access into the near-field source regions of geohazards and provide conditions for sampling and observing the system, which are not attainable at the Earth’s surface. Downhole monitoring is less influenced by environmental fluctuations close to the surface and near-surface geological structures. In last decades downhole monitoring techniques steadily improved and new sensor systems and approaches were developed. This session aims to provide an overview about state-of-the-art developments in the field of scientific drilling, sampling and monitoring in oceans and on continents to better understand and ultimately mitigate Geohazard associated risk. A focus will be on downhole monitoring and sampling, but we also welcome contributions on site surveys, drilling and logging techniques, coring, borehole testing and experiments, and modelling.

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S08 Anthropogenic Seismicity

Convener(s): Stanislaw Lasocki (Poland)

Co-Convener(s): Thomas H. Goebel (USA) Haijiang Zhang (China) Beata Orlecka-Sikora (Poland) Harsh Gupta (India)

Description
Technological activities such as the creation of artificial water reservoirs, underground and open-pit mining, extraction of hydrocarbons, geothermal energy production, etc., are known to have triggered/induced earthquakes under favorable geological conditions. The socio-economic impact of seismicity induced/triggered by geo-resource exploitation is immense. Stronger anthropogenic earthquakes can cause damage, injuries, and even fatalities. Such earthquakes exceeding magnitude 5 occurred in connection with underground mining in South Africa and India, conventional and unconventional hydrocarbon exploitation in the USA, Russia, China, and elsewhere, and geothermal energy production in South Korea. There were even anthropogenic earthquakes of magnitude 6+, including the M6.3 reservoir-triggered earthquake at Koyna, India, in 1967 and the M7.5 one triggered by conventional hydrocarbon exploitation in Neftogorsk, Russia, in 1995. A proper understanding of the factors and situations conducive to such earthquakes is crucial. We invite to this session the contributions that present case histories, elucidate the genesis of such events, and provide methodologies to mitigate and manage the anthropogenic seismic hazard.

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S09 Earthquake Ground Motion and Seismic Hazard

Convener(s): Fabrice Cotton (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Trevor Allen (Australia) Dino Bindi (Germany) Carlo Cauzzi (Switzerland) Kuo-Fong Ma (Taiwan) Hiroe Miyake (Japan) Eric Thompson (USA)

Description
The aim of this session is to provide a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art as well as innovative ideas and methods using the latest generation of open ground-motion datasets, data-mining analysis, HPC to evaluate strong ground motion and assess seismic hazard. We invite contributions related to:
(1) The estimation of earthquake ground motions and associated uncertainties (aleatoric and epistemic)
(2) Analysis of regional dependencies of source, path and site properties and their impact on ground motions and seismic hazard
(3) Assessment of ‘complex’ site effects (e.g. 2D/3D effects, non-linear effects, time dependencies), near-surface interactions, soil-structure interactions, ‘secondary’ hazards (e.g., earthquake induced mass movements, liquefaction, etc.)
(4) Characterization of near-source ground motion and assessment of source effects (e.g. pulses, directivity, fling step, etc.)
(5) New candidate parameters to characterize and model the shaking intensity
(6) Site-specific and ultra-high-density earthquake ground-motion modelling (e.g. non-ergodic ground-motion models, use of machine learning in engineering seismology)
(7) Improvement of current empirical ground-motion models by integrating physics-based models and waveforms
(8) Rapid characterization of event properties and rapid (urgent computing mode) ground shaking maps after a significant event employing instrumental and community-based intensity measures
(9) Transparent and innovative methods of testing and visualizing ground-motion and hazard models
(10) New instrumental ground-motion and macroseismic intensity datasets to complement and expand existing datasets.

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S10 Multi-Hazard Risk Assessment

Convener(s): Katsuichiro Goda (Canada)

Co-Convener(s): Chen Huang (Norway)

Description
Natural hazards are a significant threat to the lives and livelihoods worldwide and result in catastrophic destruction and damage, which call for enhanced capacities in risk and resilience management and governance. The multi-hazard risk assessments provide a comprehensive analysis of the impact of multiple hazards for emergency responders, planning authorities, as well as scientific and industrial communities. Moreover, the communication of multi-hazard risks to citizens will enhance their understanding and thus raise the resilience of society. This session aims to share scientific advances in quantifying the multi-hazard risks, including: multi-hazard modelling considering the hazard interactions in space and time; multi-vulnerability assessment considering the interconnection and dynamics of physical exposure and social characteristics; multi-hazard exposure characterization considering the spatial and temporal evolution; multi-hazard and multi-risk decision support systems; and other theoretical, methodological and practical developments regarding the multi-hazard risk assessment. Furthermore, contributions related to the communication, cooperation, coordination and collaboration in multi-hazard disaster management, multi-risk reduction strategies, and emergency response management, are also welcomed.

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S11 Site Response in Urban Areas

Convener(s): Stefano Parolai (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): Roberto Paolucci (Italy) Philippe Gueguen (France)

Description
The assessment of site effects is necessary for improved and reliable on-site seismic hazard and risk assessment. During the last decades, methods and tools have been developed to estimate both directly, using earthquake recordings, and indirectly , through active and passive investigation the site response. Large efforts have been dedicated in particular to the development of ad-hoc methods in urban areas, where the logistic of the experiments, and the anthropogenic disturbance might limit the capabilities of investigation. Recently, newly developed passive investigations, better exploiting the potential of seismic noise signals, the improved capabilities of numerical simulations, and the availability of new technologies of monitoring systems are allowing to amazingly improve the spatial resolution of the site response and to consider also the interaction of the building (city) structures with the soil. This symposium aims at providing an overview on the state of the art on site response analysis in urban areas with particular focus on innovative methodologies and tools. Studies including the usage of leading edge technogical equipment and the integration of multidisciplinary data are particularly welcome.

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S12 Recent Devastating Earthquakes

Convener(s): Kenji Satake (Japan)

Co-Convener(s): Thorne Lay (USA) Dmitry Storchak (UK) Li Li (China)

Description
Since the last IUGG General Assembly in July 2019, large, damaging earthquakes continue to strike globally, producing loss of life and destruction in many regions around the world. About 34 earthquakes with Mw ≥ 7 (NEIC/GCMT) have occurred globally as of August 30, 2022. Three great Mw~8+ earthquakes (GCMT) occurred in 2021: Kermadec Islands (March 4, Mw 8.1), Alaska (July 29, Mw 8.2), and South Sandwich Islands (August 12, Mw 8.3), with 16 more earthquakes in the world of Mw ≥ 7 that year. In terms of earthquake damage, the Haiti earthquake on August 14, 2021 (Mw 7.2) caused more than 2,000 casualties and the Afghanistan earthquake on June 22, 2022 (Mw 6.0) caused more than 1,000 casualties. Earthquake science is essential for revealing the nature of earthquake generation and for extracting lessons from these events to help society reduce the impacts of future events. Seismologists, Geodesists, Geologists and Tsunami experts have been cooperating to characterize the full earthquake cycle and to image the rupture process of earthquakes with steadily improving resolution. This session welcomes reports on all studies of recent large and/or devastating earthquakes with geodetic/seismological/tsunami techniques, including investigations of source process, slip distribution, damage, pre/co/post-seismic deformation, geological/geophysical structure around the source faults, tectonic implications, and other associated phenomena.

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S13 Development, Testing and Application of Earthquake Forecasting Models

Convener(s): Annemarie Christophersen (New Zealand)

Co-Convener(s): Eleftheria Papadimitriou (Greece) Sebastian Hainzl (Germany) Jiangang Zhuang (Japan) Andrea Llenos (USA) Rodolfo Console (Italy)

Description
Contributions are invited on all aspects of developing, testing, and applying models that are designed to forecast earthquake occurrence in time and/or space. The development of earthquake forecasting models is being facilitated by the improvement of data, modeling inputs and new methods. Modeling efforts are welcome that focus on the short–term clustering of earthquakes, the time-varying probability of rupture of major fault sources, and the space-time-magnitude variation of the rate of earthquake occurrence in extended regions. Models can be statistical, physics-based, or machine learned. Data inputs include the past earthquake catalog, known or inferred dates of previous fault ruptures, modeled physical variables such as stress-accumulation and strain rates, and proposed precursory phenomena. Testability is an important issue. Thus, studies concerning formal performance testing of competing models and improved testing methods are also invited, as well as reports on the application of forecasts to inform the public or in support of planning earthquake countermeasures.

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S14 New Advances in Understanding the Earth's Crust Dynamics in the Light of Solving the Problem of Earthquake Forecasting

Convener(s): Sergey Pulinets (Russia)

Co-Convener(s): Jure Žalohar (Slovenia) Blaž Vičič (Switzerland)

Description
Recent theoretical advances demonstrate that the activity of the faults on a global scale is more interconnected than previously considered. Calculation of the fault’s interactions based on the past earthquake catalogs within the Cosserat continuum theory demonstrates a presence of slow tectonic waves acting as triggers of earthquakes in the unstable zones encountered on their way. Simultaneously the calculated global shear traction distribution reflects the position of unstable seismically active tectonic zones. The unstable zones can also be detected by an increased degassing of the Earth’s crust. The radon proxy in the form of the atmospheric chemical potential demonstrates a high correlation with the shear traction changes, confirming the validity of the model based on the Cosserat continuum. The Symposium will collect the papers demonstrating the recent results on the global seismic activity distribution, technologies directed to the unstable zones detection including the b-value dynamics, geochemical measurements, and atmospheric effects at the final stage of the earthquake preparation cycle.

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S15 Boundary Layers in Earth’s Mantle: Origin, Structure, and Influence on Convection

Convener(s): Morvarid Saki (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Lauren Waszek (Australia) Rashni Anandawansha (USA)

Description
Earth’s mantle comprises numerous seismic discontinuities at multiple depths from the upper mantle down to the core-mantle boundary, arising as a consequence of mineral physics phase transitions or thermochemical variations. Some of these boundary layers act to impede or promote convection at global or regional scales. Thus, mapping the detailed properties of their structures offers key insight into heat and material flux throughout the whole mantle, with implications for global geodynamical processes and geochemical reservoirs. Over the last few decades, seismological studies have resulted in significantly improvements in direct observations of boundary layers in the mantle across both global and regional scales. However, the origins (thermal, chemical) of some of these features are still debated. Combining seismic observations with further constraints from mineral physics, geochemistry, and geodynamics provides important clues on composition, temperature, and dynamic processes associated with these discontinuities. This session aims to bring together scientists from different Seismological disciplines to better understanding the structure, composition, and influence of boundary layers in the Earth’s mantle, from the mantle transition zone down to the core mantle boundary. We particularly welcome multidisciplinary submissions, with an overarching goal to image the chemical evolution of Earth's interior, as well as the mechanisms affecting global circulation.

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S16 Earthquake Source Mechanics

Convener(s): Satoshi Ide (Japan)

Co-Convener(s): Simone Cesca (Germany) Keisuke Ariyoshi (Japan) Daniela Kühn (Norway) Germán Prieto (Colombia) Seok Song (South Korea)

Description
Recent high-quality seismic and geodetic observations provide large data volumes, which enable accurate determination of earthquake source parameters (locations, magnitudes, durations, moment tensors, etc.) and detailed imaging of spatio-temporal deformation processes. Further, techniques for extracting information using inverse problems and machine/deep learning techniques have improved substantially. Abundant information from these analyses is the basis for studying a variety of earthquakes to seek the governing laws and conditions for their initiation, growth, and arrest. In addition to traditional earthquakes including foreshocks, aftershocks, swarms, repeaters, volcanic and induced events, we now observe various slow earthquakes such as tectonic tremors, low-frequency earthquakes, and slow slip events. The stress state, fault geometry, and fluid movement around seismogenic regions are also important issues. The latest high-performance computing can numerically simulate the entire earthquake process from long-term tectonic loading and slow nucleation to rapid rupture propagation with strong motion radiation. The validity of assumptions in these simulations is tested by data analysis, data assimilation, laboratory experiments, and field observations including several drilling projects. In this symposium, we invite contributions on data analysis and interpretation of earthquake source mechanics, on improvement and validation of analysis techniques, on theoretical and numerical modeling of dynamic ruptures and earthquake sequences, and observational and experimental studies on the physics of earthquakes.

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S17 European Lithosphere

Convener(s): Thomas Meier (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Claudio Faccenna (Italy) Claudia Piromallo (Italy) Enrico Serpelloni (Italy) Josip Stipčević (Croatia)

Description
The tectonic evolution in the circum-Mediterranean has been shaped by a fascinating complexity of oceanic subduction, continental collision, and backarc-spreading. Resulting mountain chains from the Betics-Atlas to Anatolia are characterized by intense seismic activity. Wide-spread intraplate and subduction related volcanism indicates magma rising from the lower crust and mantle through the lithosphere. The geodynamic drivers of these active tectonic processes remain however controversial. For example, the relevance of delamination of continental mantle, of slab windows, asthenospheric flow, or mantle upwelling are discussed. Methodical advances and the deployment of dense regional seismic arrays and networks provide new options for passive seismic imaging of the lithospheric deep structure. Seismic anisotropy may reveal three-dimensional patterns of asthenospheric flow and lithospheric deformation. Seismically active zones are resolved by homogeneous catalogues of seismic events with decreasing magnitudes of completeness. Geodetic measurements give new insight into plate kinematics and uplift. Data driven geodynamic modelling aims at simulating tectonic processes with increasing resolution and spatial complexity. In this symposium, new observations and multidisciplinary studies shedding light on the geodynamic causes of active plate deformation in the circum-Mediterranean are presented and discussed.

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S18 Integrating Seismic Tomography With Mineral Physics and Potential Fields to Describe the Crust and Upper Mantle Physical State

Convener(s): Judith Bott (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): Ajay Kumar (Germany) Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth (Germany) Ulrich Achauer (France)

Description
To understand plate tectonics as driven by mantle thermodynamics and gravitational forces at interplay with rock rheology, we need comprehensive images of the in-situ physical properties (density, viscosity) and underlying state conditions (pressure, temperature) of the lithospheric plate and its transition into the upper mantle. Once the present-day physical state of such a system is defined, the intrinsic deviatoric stress field and the mantle sources of heat contributing to active plate deformation can be calculated. One key insight into the crust and upper mantle physical state is provided by seismology, namely tomography imaging of seismic velocity perturbations. Their interpretation in terms of composition and temperature conditions, however, is highly non-unique. Despite an ever-growing amount of laboratory-derived relationships between the seismic velocity of mantle minerals and their pressure and temperature derivatives of density and elastic constants, inversion of seismological information for in-situ bulk rock temperature is an ill-posed problem. In addition, effects of anelasticity, e.g., frequency-dependent wave velocity, grain size and fluid content, are important, but less well explored. To reduce the number of potential solutions, additional independent information on crustal configuration and mantle composition, temperature, pressure and density can help. As alternative to thermodynamics-based inversions, empirical approaches to calculate mantle temperature from seismic tomography models implicitly assume some fixed mantle composition or calibrate tomography models with respect to thermal models of the lithosphere and/or pressure-temperature estimates from mantle xenoliths. With this session, we intend to resume an open discussion on how to best exploit mantle seismic velocity models to derive conclusions on the composition and pressure-temperature conditions within the upper (including lithospheric) mantle. We invite contributions integrating multidisciplinary data on the crust and mantle (geological, seismic, heat flow, potential fields, xenoliths) with tomographic models to identify rheological variability exerting the most significant impacts on crustal and surface deformatio

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S19 Fabrics and Dynamics of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere System Imaged by Seismic Anisotropy and Integrated Studies

Convener(s): Jaroslava Plomerova (Czech Republic)

Co-Convener(s): Juan Carlos Afonso (Netherlands) Ulrich Achauer (France)

Description
Seismic anisotropy retrieved from all types of seismic waves provides crucial information on the structure and dynamics of the Earth’s interior at multiple scales. Due to its importance, significant advances have recently been made in the acquisition and numerical modelling of 2D and 3D anisotropy strength and orientation in different tectonic settings. Concurrent progress in laboratory experiments and integrated studies (geophysical-geodynamic-geochemical) is also helping to clarify the relationships between deformation, physical state and seismic anisotropy. In this symposium, we invite single- and multi-method presentations contributing to the understanding of all aspects of seismic anisotropy in the lithosphere (both in the crust and in the mantle lithosphere) and/or the sub-lithospheric upper mantle. We also encourage contributions from multi-disciplinary modelling of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system aiming at understanding how present-day seismic fabrics relate to past and on-going deformation processes. We will discuss the current state of affairs in seismic anisotropy as well as ways forward to advance the field.

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S20 Education & Outreach to Ensure Success of Earthquake Early Warning Programmes

Convener(s): Alison Bird (Canada)

Co-Convener(s): Raju Sarkar (Bhutan) Xyoli Pérez-Campos (Mexico)

Description
While Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems have the potential to greatly reduce the impact of major seismic events, this can only be achieved if: 1) technical recipients of alerts have in place automated technologies to enact protective measures for their systems and facilities, and 2) people are aware of and prepared to take safe response actions, such as to Drop, Cover, and Hold on. To establish the necessary culture of awareness and preparedness, EEW organizations must work with emergency measures organizations, federal public safety campaigns, and others to ensure a broad, consistent, and authoritative EEW education and outreach effort is successful. Such initiatives should take special care to address particularly vulnerable populations, such as low income, new immigrants, Indigenous, and elderly.

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S21 Seismology Education and Inclusive Environments

Convener(s): Raju Sarkar (Bhutan)

Co-Convener(s): Aaron Velasco (USA) Xyoli Pérez-Campos (Mexico)

Description
Worldwide, earthquakes represent a substantial hazard, especially to underdeveloped countries. Social preparedness and community response can be improved through awareness and understanding of seismology. They represent a global challenge that can be overcome by improving education in seismology and involvement of the local communities. There are new initiatives to improve seismology awareness through education and citizen participation in various countries around the world. For some countries, resources and infrastructure are a limitation; however, creative strategies can be implemented. Researches on the following topics are welcome, but not limited: a) Educational programs in seismology. b) Strategies on public outreach in seismology.

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