V01 Volcano Geodesy Techniques and Approaches for Studying and Monitoring Volcanic Processes

Convener(s): A. Bonforte (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): M. Head

Description
Geodetic data are a critical component of understanding volcanic unrest. Both deformation and gravity monitoring data at multiple spatial and temporal scales are available for hundreds of volcanoes worldwide.  Here we invite presentations discussing broad applications of volcano geodesy to global volcanoes, but also studies of individual systems that can have implications for understanding volcanic processes through development of improved techniques, integration of multidisciplinary data or modeling, and impacts on forecasting volcanic activity.

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V02 Modelling and Monitoring of Volcanic Ash Clouds

Convener(s): M. de Michieli Vitturi (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): D. Andronico M. Pistolesi A. Van Eaton

Description
Among the variety of volcanic processes, explosive eruptions are of particular interest for the scientific community, in the light of mitigating their impact on human lives and activities. In fact, the eruption columns formed during these episodes may represent a great hazard for our society. On the ground, livelihoods and infrastructures can be extensively damaged by the fall of pyroclasts of various sizes and shapes. In the air, volcanic clouds pose a serious threat to aviation safety with immediate and long-term effects on aircraft functionalities. Volcanic hazard assessment is therefore a fundamental step in the evaluation of the risk associated with the presence of ash particles into the atmosphere and the fall of tephra on the ground. In this session we welcome contributions combining numerical modelling, field observation and monitoring of volcanic ash clouds, supporting the assessment of their hazard.

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V03 Uncertainty Treatment in Volcanic Hazard Analyses

Convener(s): S. Massaro (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): A. Bevilacqua E. Spiller P. Tierz

Description
The study of volcanic hazard in a probabilistic framework, i.e. integrating field data, numerical modelling and statistical approaches, has become one of the most rapidly developing topics in volcanology, given its usefulness in decision making aimed at emergency management and risk mitigation strategies. Despite the improvements over the last years, quantitative methods are not yet universally applied to better characterize uncertainties, both aleatoric, which reflect the intrinsic natural variability of eruptive processes, and epistemic, linked to our limited knowledge on such processes. This session encourages contributions aimed at improving the robustness of methodological approaches for uncertainty quantification in probabilistic volcanic hazard assessment studies.

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V04 Integrated Approaches to Investigate Pyroclastic Density Currents

Convener(s): F. Dioguardi (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): F. Beckett S. Engwell J. Eychenne T. Jones

Description
Pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) are among the most hazardous phenomena generated during explosive volcanic eruptions. This, together with their high degree of complexity, justifies the effort that several researchers have made to quantitatively characterize and model these flows. In fact, PDCs display a very wide variety of regimes (from turbulent dilute flows to dense block and ash flows), each of these, in turn are characterized by various complex transport-deposition-sedimentation processes that are difficult to model. In this session we welcome novel contributions on the topic of pyroclastic density currents, with a particular emphasis on integrated approaches that merge field study, laboratory experiments and numerical modelling at different scales (from the particle to the flow scale).

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V05 Interactions Between Volcanic Eruptions and Climate

Convener(s): T. Aubry (UK)

Co-Convener(s): A. Schmidt

Description
This session welcomes papers on the broad range of effects of volcanic activity on weather, climate, and the environment. This includes, but is not limited to, i) studies improving our understanding of past climate-volcano interactions, such as the role of volcanic eruptions in the onset of the Little Ice Age; ii) plans and methods for incorporating observations and models to produce weather and climate forecasts following future eruptions, and iii) contributions showing evidence or building hypotheses on how climate change may affect volcanic eruptions and their climatic effects. We also welcome contributions focusing on the understanding of specific processes (e.g., remote sensing of eruptions, or the chemical and microphysical processes that govern the evolution of volcanic aerosols) and on the societal relevance of climate-volcano interactions.

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V06 Geochemical and Geophysical Responses of Magma Feeding Systems and Eruption Dynamics at Active and Quiescent Volcanoes

Convener(s): E. Nicotra (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): H. Albert

Description
This session aims at attracting inter-disciplinary studies that put together geochemical and geophysical data to investigate the architecture of magma feeding systems and the processes that occur before and during eruption. These processes and their time scales can significantly influence eruptive scenarios and therefore a better knowledge of them is key to strategically plan the actions needed to mitigate volcanic risk. An articulated network of magma reservoirs developing from mantle sources up to eruptive vents forms the architecture of a plumbing system. Here, magma differentiation, degassing, recharge and mixing act at different depths and across different geometries, depending on the physical and chemical properties of magmas and their crystal cargo. In this context, magma dynamics and volcano-tectonic events can both trigger eruptions. Particular focuses will be related to: i) geophysical and geochemical reconstructions of the architecture of volcano plumbing systems; ii) magma storage and ascent dynamics and their timescales; iii) magma differentiation/evolution processes; iv) pre- and syn-eruptive physical response of the system; v) reconstruction of eruptive scenarios from volcano-stratigraphy of deposits; vi) eruption triggers and vii) magma source processes

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V07 Putting Time And Rate Constraints On Magmatic Processes; How Fast? How Long?

Convener(s): Y. Moussallam (France)

Co-Convener(s): K. Koga

Description
The application of chemical diffusion, nucleation, and growth theories to magmatic systems on one side, and the increasing spatial and temporal resolution of geophysical techniques on the other, are allowing us to place ever tighter constraints on the timing of magmatic processes. How fast does magma ascend, descend, migrate? How long does it stay in each reservoir? How quickly does it fractionate, mix? In this session we invite contributions, either from case-studies or method development, and through the lenses of geochemistry or geophysics, aiming at determining the timing of magmatic processes.     

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V08 Volcano Geology and Mapping, Eruptive Behaviour and Hazard Assessment From Field Studies

Convener(s): N. Pardo (Colombia)

Co-Convener(s): F. Lucchi

Description
This session deals with updated examples of geological mapping, stratigraphic and chronological analyses in volcanic areas and reconstructions of eruptive behaviours as essential inputs for robust physical volcanology and modeling, hazard evaluation and land-planning. A particular focus is given to the role of volcanic maps as fundamental tools for multidisciplinary research and decision-making processes on territorial management, and risk mitigation. The center of the interest in this session is how to present the geological information in maps, and which information should be displayed, as the main source of data for understanding the behaviour of volcanoes and their future activity, and a multidisciplinary knowledge of the structure of a volcanic system representing the basis for physical and mathematical modelling of eruptive processes and providing information to describe the processes that control unrest dynamics. Tephrostratigraphic studies are welcomed as examples in reconstructing the eruptive history of a volcano, and the frequency and the impact of its eruptive activity on the surroundings.

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V09 Advanced Remote Sensing Techniques to Study Volcanic Hazards

Convener(s): J. Brauner (USA)

Co-Convener(s): E. Zorn

Description
Remote sensing via satellites, crewed, and unoccupied systems provide an ever-growing pool of opportunities to study, monitor, and model volcanic processes and associated hazards. These processes may involve explosive and effusive eruptions, mass movements and associated tsunamis, hazardous gas emissions, and limnic eruptions. Hazards from volcanic eruptions remain challenging to anticipate, but remotely sensed data and in situ monitoring from a growing number of platforms (e.g., sUAS, CubeSats), are expanding our capacity to study these hazards at greater spatial, temporal, and spectral resolution. In combination with computer learning technologies (machine learning, artificial intelligence) and growing computational power to analyze large datasets, these techniques have, in recent years, allowed the volcanology community to provide timely and accurate warnings of volcanic eruptions. In this session, we invite contributions that address remote sensing of volcanic systems and associated hazards, with an emphasis on developing new approaches and novel applications of existing technologies. Examples can range from individual case or proof-of-concept studies to the development of systematic strategies and best practices.

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V10 History of Volcanology and Historical Volcanology

Convener(s): C. Principe (Italy)

Co-Convener(s): M. Kölbl-Ebert

Description
The history of volcanology is the history of ideas and processes that investigate the reason volcanic events occur and the physical processes that regulate them. The maturation and changes of these ideas over time have made volcanology the science we know today. While the term historical volcanology must refer to the use of historical data, be it documentary or figurative, for the description of volcanic phenomena, for example through the description of eruptive phenomenologies, their products, and the resulting morphologies in written texts and pictorial works. In both cases, these disciplines require a marked multidisciplinarity, historical and volcanological approach, and aim to reconstruct volcanological processes and events of the past. Contributions from both of these points of view are welcomed.

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V11 Planetary Volcanism: Remote Sensing, Rovers, Earth Analogues and Modelling

Convener(s): S. Poppe (Poland)

Co-Convener(s): S. Rivas-Dorada

Description
Observations of the distribution, form, and composition of volcanic features on other terrestrial planetary bodies, where subduction, erosion, and vegetation does not obscure surface features, helps revolutionize our understanding of volcanism on Earth. With recently available data for Mercury from MESSENGER and the arrival this decade of BepiColombo, the selection last year of new radar missions to Venus, and the myriad of data from the current fleet of spacecraft at the Moon and Mars, we have never been better positioned to understand how volcanism is expressed throughout the Solar System, including on our own world. In this session we invite all contributions relating to planetary volcanism, encompassing remote sensing, geomorphology, sample-based, experimental and numerical modelling, and Earth-analogue studies that utilize planetary data to provide a deeper understanding of this fundamental planetary process.

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V12 Toward Realistic Modelling of Volcano Deformation 

Convener(s): T. Davis (UK)

Co-Convener(s): C. Harnett S. Poppe

Description
In this session we aim at reviewing and discussing the current stage of volcano deformation models. The data collected at active volcanoes is rapidly increasing both in quantity and quality. Remote sensing had been a game changer for volcano monitoring, leading to a dramatic increase of high-resolution data which, coupled with ground-based sensors, captures the complexity of volcano instability, magma movement and magma storage conditions in the subsurface. It is becoming routine to fit ground deformation and seismic signals of such events using static models, typically with constant opening or piece-wise static deformation sources in homogeneous elastic half-spaces. Simple fitting of such models lacks predictive power about what will happen to the system next and provides little insight into the physics of the system. Mechanical modelling can answer how intrusions develop through time, can help investigate the processes controlling where and when magma erupts and can quantify the influence of mechanical complexities and when these should be considered. Such models are typically theoretical, but due to rapid increases in the data quality of events we can begin to test the predictive power of these models. We welcome contributions across numerical and laboratory modelling, physical volcanology, planetary geology, geodesy and geophysics that focus on building and informing cutting art mechanical models of volcano deformation by i)simulating more realistic rheologies and mechanical heterogeneities from rock testing, geophysical measurements or geological field observation; ii) exploring limitations of typical model assumptions by comparing and integrating field/experimental/numerical methods; iii) developing new modelling applications that simulate previously unconstrained mechanics and dynamic propagation; iv) developing dedicated 3D modelling approaches; v) using AI or machine learning to analyse model sensitivities in large data sets  

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V13 Recent Advances in Volcanology

Convener(s): U. Kueppers (Germany)

Co-Convener(s): L. Caricchi

Description
The advancement of our understanding of volcanic processes is driven by technological advances and successful intra- and inter-disciplinary collaborations. Beyond the mechanical understanding of processes, the dynamic evolution of volcanology enhances our capacity to mitigate the impact of volcanic eruptions and to execute quantitative hazard assessment. In this session, we invite contributions on all subjects involving the development of new instrumentation and/or approaches that tackle the great open questions in volcanology such as: i) How well can we forecast eruption start, style and/or duration; ii) How fast is magma moving through the Earth’s crust?; iii) How well can we predict where and how much ash will fall during a volcanic eruption; iv) How can we contribute to guaranteeing swift and efficient communication with authorities and civil protection? We explicitly invite contribution from field, lab and numerical approaches in volcanology and related disciplines.

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V14 Open-vent Systems - Definitions, Longevity, and Implications

Convener(s): A. Naismith (UK)

Co-Convener(s):

Description
Volcanologists frequently refer to certain volcanoes by the term "open-vent"; however, within our community, there exist various definitions of the term itself. Furthermore, so-called "open-vent" volcanoes display a dazzlingly wide range of behaviours and activity over different timescales. This session invites discussion of our current understanding of "open-vent" systems, including debates of definitions of "open-vent", and the value/weight of these definitions in the circles they are used. We also particularly welcome studies of the longevity of open-vent systems, including timescales over which systems are active, and curtailments or onset of activity at open-vent volcanoes. Finally, we invite submissions on how new methods of monitoring allow us to more clearly explore and define open-vent systems, and implications this may have for hazard and risk management.

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V15 Interdisciplinary Approaches to Volcanic Hazards Modelling

Convener(s): A. Poulidis (Greece)

Co-Convener(s): J. Lindsay S. Biass

Description
Forecasting, analysing and mitigating the impact of volcanic hazards is a central goal in volcanology. Despites recent advances in modeling approaches and geophysical monitoring that have improved the quantification of hazardous processes, large uncertainties remain. As volcanology is one of the quintessential interdisciplinary sciences, benefiting from the combined perspectives of different disciplines is critical. For example, meteorological models can help assess limitations in tephra transport models, atmospheric chemistry transport models can help determine the role of volcanic emissions in local air quality and statistical emulators and machine learning techniques can reveal unexplored relationships between processes. Integrating advances in the various fields tangential to geology and geophysics can therefore improve our understanding and representation of volcanic hazards in models to help mitigation efforts. As such, in this session, we welcome submissions exploring new approaches for interdisciplinarity in the modelling of volcanic hazards and their impacts. We especially seek contributions focusing on the innovative use of interdisciplinarity with the overall aim of reducing volcanic risk.

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